Specialisation Courses
 


Specialisation Courses

1. Teacher Education Strand

   1.1  English I: Introduction to Applied English Linguistics
   1.2  English II: TESOL in Multilingual Classrooms  
   1.3  English III: Learning Systems in ELT
   1.4  English IV: Research in TESOL
   1.5  Mathematics Education I (ME I): School Mathematics
   1.6  Mathematics Education II:  History and Philosophy of Mathematics
   1.7  Mathematics Education III: Teaching Learning and Assessment of  Mathematics
   1.8  Mathematics Education IV: Critical Issues in Teaching and Learning of 
Mathematics in the Developing World

   1.9  Science Education I: Teaching and Learning Science
 1.10  Science Education II: Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science
 1.11  Science Education III: Nature and Philosophy of Science
 1.12  Science Education IV: Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science 
Education

 1.13  Social Studies I: Theories and Meanings
 1.14  Social Studies II: Learning to Teach Social Studies 1
 1.15  Social Studies III: Learning to Teach Social Studies (2)
 1.16  Social Studies IV: Researching and Teaching Practicum

2. Educational Leadership and Management Strand

  2.1  Organizational Learning  
  2.2  Effective Management Practices
  2.3  Strategic Leadership and Management in Education
  2.4  Researching Leadership


1. Teacher Education Strand

 1.1  English I: Introduction to Applied English Linguistics

This would be a core introductory course which will draw on knowledge about language, how it works and how it is used in order to contribute to real life issues. This would introduce teachers to foundational areas in linguistics (sounds, structure, meaning, and discourse) to build in an “applied” sense.

This course will introduce the CPs to compare L1 acquisition and Second Language Acquisition (SLA). They will be able to analyze some of the difficulties that the L2 learners face in learning English; recognize the social and cultural influences on SLA and discuss the SLA contributions to teaching English to speakers of other languages.  Furthermore, the CPs will have an opportunity of developing awareness of ELT approaches and methods including CALL.

This course will also include an introduction to teaching the four skills, language policy like postcolonial performance, globalization, critical thinking, multimodality, etc. CPs will be encouraged to critically analyze influences on the classroom practice in relation to language curriculum.

It is expected that by the end of the course CPs will be able to:

  • Understand how language works and is used.
  • Understand and distinguish between L1 and SLA.
  • Develop awareness of key developments in ELT methods and approaches to teaching English and CALL.
  • Identify and analyze variables that affect learning and teaching in one or more teaching and learning contexts.
  • Develop awareness of the basic philosophy of language skills, policy and curriculum.

 1.2  English II: TESOL in Multilingual Classrooms 

This course will concentrate on developing theoretical, content and pedagogical knowledge of teachers of English who teach at primary and secondary levels in bilingual/multilingual contexts such as Pakistan. The initial part of the course will consider how children learn languages and what models, techniques and resources are available to maximize opportunities for learning English in the classroom and school settings.

Particular focus will be on fostering and enhancing teaching of English to young learners focusing on teaching of the four skills i.e. listening and speaking, reading and writing. The second part of the course will focus on the theoretical and practical aspects of English language teaching at the lower secondary level. The aim of this course is to enable the CPs to understand the principles and practice of teaching and learning English at the secondary level.

Learning Outcomes:

  • Develop an awareness of issues central to teaching English to young and secondary grade learners.
  • Develop an awareness of socio-cognitive approaches to how young children and secondary level students learn languages particularly in bilingual/multilingual contexts.
  • Critically examine the curriculum and practices currently used in schools to develop language.
  • Demonstrate a critical understanding of approaches, techniques and strategies for developing and extending learners skills in reading, writing, listening and speaking.
  • Develop developmentally appropriate curriculum framework and assessment strategies for learners at both primary and secondary levels.
  • Identify and analyze variables that affect learning and teaching in one or more teaching and learning contexts at the lower secondary level.
  • Demonstrate their ability to select, adapt or develop methods appropriate to their respective contexts using innovative approaches to language teaching and learning through preparing and teaching lessons focusing on one or more language skills or competencies (grammar and literature).
  • Select, adapt and design curriculum and learning materials for the above using well-defined criteria.

 1.3  English III: Learning Systems in ELT

This specialisation seeks to prepare ELT teachers to systematically analyze instructional problems in ELT environments so as to effectively generate practical contextual solutions.

This specialisation seeks to prepare the participants to:

  • Analyze instructional problems in ELT relevant to their contexts.
  • Generate practical contextual solutions to address these problems.
  • Design effective ELT environments (face to face and virtually).
  • Implement technology for language learning and teaching.
  • Appreciate and perform reflective fieldwork.

 1.4  English IV: Research in TESOL

This course will require CPs to undertake a systematic qualitative research based on their teaching. The CPs will be encouraged to use their theoretical, pedagogical content knowledge developed in the preceding courses and consider the contextual realities to initiate research in a teaching setting.

Learning Outcomes:

  • Understand the concept of research in the teaching context with special reference to TESOL.
  • Conduct a qualitative research study in their classroom.
  • Develop teaching practice through research and reflection.
  • Critically evaluate and write the findings of their research.

 1.5  Mathematics Education I (ME I): School Mathematics

A major aim of ME-I is to enable course participants to review, revise and update their subject content knowledge and develop an insight into the process of learning and their own role as learners in this process. The scope of the content knowledge would be in five key strands of the school mathematics curriculum. It is expected that this course would be taught in the manner as we would expect the CPs teach, thereby providing an opportunity to weave in innovative/relevant teaching approaches with the content.

CPs should be able to:

  • Explain and analyse key concepts in mathematics and pedagogical issues around them taken from the five key areas; Number, Algebra, Geometry, Data handling and Measurement of the school mathematics curriculum at an appropriate level.
  • Develop and further enhance their disposition towards problem solving and logical thinking.
  • Identify and use selected teacher education strategies to support their own learning (e.g. critical incident analysis).

 1.6  Mathematics Education II:  History and Philosophy of Mathematics

The course ME-II aims to provide the course participants with background knowledge, history and major philosophical perspectives of mathematics.  It is expected that this course would provide students with an opportunity to see developmentally the ideas, concepts and relationships in mathematics, which is very significant given that mathematics is very often perceived as a reified body of knowledge waiting to be discovered. The course would also encourage participants to explore their personal philosophies of mathematics.

By the end of the course, participants should be able to:

  • Describe and explain different views about the nature of mathematics and their implication for learning and teaching of mathematics. 
  • Describe and analyse concepts of school mathematics by placing them into a wider historical context.
  • Construct and justify goals for teaching mathematics.

 1.7  Mathematics Education III:  Teaching Learning and Assessment of
         Mathematics

This course aims to provide participants with the experience of trying out in the real world of the classroom the ideas, strategies and theories introduced in the seminar rooms. This practicum course would involve participants in planning, teaching and critically rationalizing their decisions in the field.

By the end of the course, participants should be able to:

  • Identify and distinguish different ways in which students learn mathematics identify  and distinguish a range of  strategies, skills and frameworks for developing mathematical thinking and understanding.
  • Become aware of key theories of learning of relevance to mathematics (e.g. instrumental and relational learning, socio-cultural approach to learning) and develop their stance on them through their reflection on their teaching.
  • Develop unit plans and schemes of study for selected classrooms at the levels which they teach and rationalize their decisions.
  • Accept and facilitate children as active and independent learners.
  • Identify and practise different ways of assessing students’ learning.

 1.8  Mathematics Education IV:  Critical Issues in Teaching and Learning
        of
Mathematics in the Developing World

This course aims to provide CPs with an opportunity to engage critically with issues in mathematics education in the context of developing world setting. 

By the end of the course, participants would:

  • Identify a range of issues, specific to mathematics as a discipline, that affect teaching and learning of mathematics (e.g. gender, attitude towards math, use of materials, use of technology).
  • Recognize the implications of these issues for policy and practice at local and global levels.

 1.9  Science Education I: Teaching and Learning Science

The aim of this course is to provide a foundation on science teaching and learning in the context of Pakistan and the developing world. This will help CPs to reconceptualize the learners not as empty vessels but as individuals who carry with them “alternate frameworks” to explain the physical world around them. This framework is very difficult to change and replace with scientific concepts which by consensus are accepted by the science community. Hence the CPs will not only be exposed to but will also implement lessons based on prevalent learning theories of relevance to science.

After taking this course CPs should be able to:

  • Examine and broaden their own conceptions of learning and teaching science.
  • Demonstrate an enhanced understanding of selected content in the three disciplines of science (physics, chemistry & biology).
  • Explore and analyze students’ alternative frameworks in learning science.
  • Begin to develop science education practice that is informed both by current learning theories but also research undertaken in the context.
  • Develop teaching/learning materials to develop students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes essential for science.
  • Enhance CPs’ knowledge and practice of a variety of teaching strategies in science particularly those that are relevant to the contextual realities of the developing world.

 1.10  Science Education II: Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science

The aim of this course is be to enhance both content and pedagogy and see the interaction between the two in the context of science – in effect to develop the concept of pedagogical content knowledge. This will be done within a strong field based component within the framework of life-long learners so that CPs reduce dependency on “experts” and learn to use resources available within an average school to enhance their practice.

After taking this course CPs should be able to:

  • Develop an understanding of the national science curriculum.
  • Critically analyze the goals and purposes of school science.
  • Enrich own content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge in selected science concepts from classes IV-XII.
  • Experience a variety of teaching approaches and strategies.
  • Develop and implement teaching and learning materials based on the innovative and contextually relevant approaches and strategies.

 1.11  Science Education III: Nature and Philosophy of Science

This course will ensure that the CPs develop a good understanding of the nature of science with relevance to school science and will include the history, philosophy and sociology of science. The rationale for including this course in the M.Ed. Programme is to give student an understanding of the enterprise of science and how science knowledge is actually created. Lack of this kind of understanding about science encourages teachers to teach science as knowledge “out there” rather than a human endeavour.

After taking this course CPs should be able to:

  • Reflect, review and develop their own understanding of the nature of science.
  • Review, enrich and implement curriculum materials incorporating the nature of science at grades 5th – 10th level.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of different approaches to inquiry in science by engaging in scientific inquiry themselves in preparation for inquiry teaching.

 1.12  Science Education IV: Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science
           Education

The aim of this course is to allow flexibility to Masters students to focus on some of those areas of special interest to them such as gender and science, language, ICT integration in the science classroom, socio-cultural aspects of science, etc. and develop their expertise through special readings and practice in this aspect of education in science.

After taking this course CPs should be able to:

  • Develop expertise in one or two areas of their own selection in the area of education in science.
  • Design some integrated teaching learning materials/activities to address the issues and trends.

 1.13  Social Studies I: Theories and Meanings

This course aims to expose CPs to the interdisciplinary nature and contested meanings of social studies, with a view to develop their understanding(s) of nature and purposes of social studies education. In addition, the course aims to explore different social theories that explain the nature of society, and its relationship with the individual, with a view to equip course participants with a variety of analytical lens to ‘see’ the society and their respective roles within it, critically, and in turn bring these understandings to their own role as social studies teacher educator/teacher.

It is envisaged that the CPs will be able to:

  • Understand the contested meanings and nature of the concept of  “society”, and social studies education.
  • Analyze complex ways in which the individual-society relationship can be conceived.
  • Understand how various disciplines such as: sociology, history, geography anthropology, philosophy, political science and social-psychology can be applied to illuminate and address complex social issues.
  • Examine learning theories with particular emphasis on ‘how children learn social studies.’
  • Develop an ability to critically review the social studies curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment practices in school and make suggestions for improvement.
  • Identify their own curriculum orientations and develop strong rationales to support their orientations.

 1.14  Social Studies II: Learning to Teach Social Studies 1

This course aims to facilitate teachers in transforming their existing understanding as well as instructional practices of social studies teaching through integrating innovative teaching strategies which can enhance their knowledge of the subject-matter content, pedagogy and assessment practices. Furthermore, the course aims to inculcate pedagogy (in a broad sense- as ways of doing) that engages the teacher and through them their students to be informed, responsible, active and peace loving ‘citizens’ in globalizing and culturally diverse world. 

It is envisaged that the CPs will be able to:

  • Enhance their understanding about the notion of citizenship in the context of the nation-state as well as a globalizing world; and their respective role as ‘global citizens’.
  • Be aware about their own historical, political and socio-cultural ‘make-up’- as citizens. 
    Enhance their self-understanding of what it means to be a ‘global citizen’.
  • Know and use a variety of pedagogical strategies (concept attainment, cooperative learning, critical thinking and discussion), instructional skills [higher order questioning, clear instructions, learning outcomes, questioning, presentation], and assessment strategies (observations and performance assessment) to facilitate learning of concepts, skills and dispositions essential to the disciplines.
  • Identify and apply a variety of content related strategies (role-play, inquiry, field visits to museums, decision-making skills), instructional skills (map and globe skills, identifying and analyzing primary and secondary sources of studying history, chronological skills).
  • Plan and teach lessons to develop CPs knowledge, skills and dispositions.

 1.15  Social Studies III: Learning to Teach Social Studies (2)

This course aims to enhance the course participants’ understanding of the interrelationship between school-society, and their role within the society. The course further aims to develop within a students’ sense of respect and appreciation for, and ability to engage with the difference/diversity, with a view to foster respect and appreciation for diversity to create a socially just and peaceful world.

It is envisaged that the CPs will be able to:

  • Develop a greater understanding about the manner in which society shapes the school, and the school shapes society.
  • Develop knowledge and skills to conduct community service learning, and integrate it with their social studies curriculum and teaching.
  • Broaden their awareness about nature, challenges and opportunities of living in an inter-cultural world.
  • Develop key skills involved in inter-cultural education (to mention few: cultural exploration, cross-cultural perspective building, dialogue).
  • Develop a comparative and analytical ‘eye’ to view the dynamics of self and cultural ‘other’.
  • Enhance skills in integrating theme of education for pluralism in existing social studies curriculum, teaching and learning.
  • Develop an understanding in integrating cross-disciplinary perspectives to illuminate socio-cultural issues and dynamics, and its implications on social studies teaching and learning.
  • Build a repertoire of pedagogical strategies (concept attainment, cooperative learning, inquiry, academic controversy, role play, photo essay and discussion), instructional skills [higher order questioning, clear instructions, learning outcomes, questioning, presentation], and assessment strategies (observations and performance assessment).

 1.16  Social Studies IV: Researching and Teaching Practicum

This course aims to develop CPs ability to translate previous course learning into practical classroom teaching (with a select focus), as well as share with them select methodology for doing social research.

It is envisaged that the CPs will be able to:

  • Develop a unit plan and use it for effective teaching.
  • Plan and implement a teacher education component through using a variety of teacher professional development strategies.
  • Develop an understanding and practice of participatory/ action
  • Research, social documentary-making (using research) and social issue inquiry.

2. Educational Leadership and Management Strand

 2.1  Organizational Learning 

This course takes a broader view of learning in an organizational context. The focus of the course is on the processes through which learning takes place at various levels within an organization, i.e., individual, group and organizational learning. The course focuses on the processes that allow the organization to generate, disseminate and retain knowledge. Inherently, it will also discuss the barriers that prevent the organization from learning.
It will develop CPs understanding of schools as learning organizations along with the implications for their role as potential educational leaders to transform schools into learning communities.

As a result of this course it is intended that CPs will be able to:

  • Understand learning and knowledge management in the context of organizations.
  • Develop deeper insights into the collaborative and social aspect of learning.
  • Understand and differentiate among the various related notions, such as ‘learning organization’ versus ‘organizational learning’.
  • Compare and contrast various models and theories of organizational learning.
  • Build capacity and leadership for the school as a learning organization.

2.2  Effective Management Practices

The course aims to help CPs critically examine the existing leadership and management practices and explore alternate and context-based practices. It will also seek to make the learning more field-based through school visits, and exposure to a diversity of settings related to educational leadership and management practices.

By the end of the course, CPs will be able to:

  • Develop an analytical understanding of the leadership and management studies  and be exposed to various practices – current and desirable – to be able to appreciate their own roles as current or aspiring leaders in their communities of practice.
  • Acquire relevant knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes, which will help them develop more effective leadership practices in their institutions.
  • Demonstrate their skills as effective communicators, managers, planners and strategic problem solvers.
  • Critically analyze effective management practices as the key to enhancing teaching and learning in their educational institutions for school improvement.

 2.3  Strategic Leadership and Management in Education

The aim of this course is to develop CPs understanding of strategic leadership and management for organizational development. The course will address the strategic aspects of leadership and management including, but not limited to, the notions of strategic planning, visioning and direction setting, forward planning, and monitoring. The course will equip CPs with practical understanding, advanced skills and strategies, and positive attitude towards the strategic leadership and management they need to adopt in order to transform their schools.

As a result of participating in this course, the CPs are expected to:

  • Enhance their strategic thinking, involving skills such as scenario planning forward thinking, seeing the bigger picture, developing long-term vision, understanding the long-term implication of decisions and so on.
  • Develop a broader and deeper understanding of the strategic nature of issues surrounding educational organizations in the 21st century.
  • Gain insights into the strategic planning processes and be able to develop clear vision and directions for their schools.
  • Develop practical understanding of, and technical skills for designing a strategic plan for school improvement.
  • Enhance their understanding and skills for developing an effective system for monitoring and evaluation for their schools.
  • Engage in the development of short- and long term plan for school development.

 2.4  Researching Leadership

The overall aim of the course is to discuss current approaches to research into educational leadership and enable the course participants to develop broad based repertoire of leadership knowledge and skills through studying the phenomenon.

The course is built on the premise that leadership is a function of culture and context. Comparative studies and developing a comparative stance will, therefore, remain an important aspect of this course in order to explore how research on leadership in other fields can be used as inspiration for understanding educational leadership.

The course will help CPs to learn to examine, test and apply the theoretical perspectives and knowledge of educational leadership and management since an important aim of the course is to enable the CPs to apply their knowledge to real life situations and contexts. They will be encouraged to undertake small-scale research projects/ practitioner investigations of their own design, aimed to address questions such as, ‘How is leadership accomplished, developed, experienced and practiced?’

As a result of participating in this course, the CPs are expected to:

  • Understand current methodological approaches towards studying educational leadership.
  • Identify and discuss issues in researching leadership, and appreciate the complexity involved in studying the phenomenon. 
  • Develop a comparative stance towards educational leadership.
  • Design and undertake small-scale research projects/ practitioner investigations in the area of educational leadership.
  • Understand the nature of leadership and its development.